圈圈 XX，「OO」是 food 食物，
and more 「Yokohama Note」 鎌倉 大佛茶廊
By and more
圈圈 XX，「OO」是 food 食物，
現在興之所至 如法search 一番
美語風情話 805.18/8363(2) Joan McConnell 著 張宏庸譯 幼獅 1991
『陸羽全集』茶学文庫〇〇一 張宏庸輯校 茶学文学出版社 民国74年 1985
臺灣傳統茶藝文化 974.8/8724 張宏庸著 漢光文化 1999
台湾茶芸発展史-台湾民俗芸術(3)(P), 張宏庸 著, 晨星出版社, 2002,
台湾茶広告百年(P), 張宏庸 著, 遠足文化, 2005,
Mate (Spanish pronunciation: [ˈmate]), also known as chimarrão (Portuguese: [ʃimaˈxɐ̃ũ]) or cimarrón, is a traditional South American infused drink. It is prepared from steeping dried leaves of yerba mate (llex paraguariensis, known in Portuguese as erva mate) in hot water. It is the national drink in Argentina, though Paraguay and Uruguay also happen to claim nationality over the beverage, and drinking it is a common social practice in parts of Brazil, Chile, eastern Bolivia, Lebanon and Syria. In Brazil, it is considered to be a tradition typical of the “Gauchos”, term commonly used to describe residents of the South American pampas, chacos, or Patagonian grasslands, found principally in parts of Argentina, Uruguay, Southern Chile, and Southern Region, Brazil. The drink contains caffeine.
Mate is served with a metal straw from a shared hollow calabash gourd. The straw is called a bombilla in Latin American Spanish, a bomba in Portuguese, and a masassa in Arabic. The straw is traditionally made of silver. Modern commercially available straws are typically made of nickel silver, called Alpaca, stainless steel, or hollow-stemmed cane. The gourd is known as a mate or a guampa, while in Brazil it has the specific name of chimarrão or cuia. Even if the water comes in a very modern thermos, the infusion is traditionally drunk from mates or cuias. However, "tea-bag" type infusions of mate (mate cocido) have been on the market in Argentina for many years under such trade names as "Cruz de Malta" and in Brazil under the name "Mate Leão".
As with other brewed herbs, yerba mate leaves are dried, chopped, and ground into a powdery mixture called yerba. The bombilla acts as both a straw and a sieve. The submerged end is flared, with small holes or slots that allow the brewed liquid in, but block the chunky matter that makes up much of the mixture. A modern bombilla design uses a straight tube with holes, or spring sleeve to act as a sieve.
|Please expand this article with text translated from the corresponding article in the Russian Wikipedia. (December 2009) |
Translation instructions · Translate via Google
The word is properly spelled "mate" in English, Spanish, and Portuguese, though some English sources prefer "maté." The accent on the final letter is a hypercorrection intended to indicate that the word is distinct from the common English word "mate," meaning a partner. The multicultural Yerba Mate Association of the Americas states that it is always improper to accent the second syllable, since doing so confuses the word with the unrelated Spanish word meaning "I killed."
In Brazil, traditionally prepared mate is known as chimarrão, although in areas near the border with Uruguay the word mate is also used.
The Spanish "cimarrón" means "rough," "brute," or "barbarian," but is most widely understood to mean "feral," and is used in almost all of Latin America for domesticated animals that have become wild. The word was then used by the people who colonized the region of the Río de la Plata to describe the natives' rough and sour drink, drunk with no other ingredient to soften the taste.
The method of preparing the mate infusion varies considerably from region to region, and it is hotly debated which method yields the finest outcome. However, nearly all methods have some common elements. The beverage is traditionally prepared in a gourd recipient called also mate or guampa in Spanish and cuia in Portuguese. The gourd is nearly filled with yerba, and hot water (typically at 70–80 °C [160–180 °F], never boiling) is added.
The most common preparation involves a careful arrangement of the yerba within the gourd before adding hot water. In this method, the gourd is first filled one-half to three-quarters of the way with yerba. After that, any additional herbs may be added for either health or flavor benefits; a practice most common in Paraguay, where people acquire herbs from a local yuyera (herbalist) and use the mate as a base for their herbal infusions. When the gourd is adequately filled, the preparer typically grasps it with the full hand, covering and roughly sealing the opening with the palm. Then the mate is turned upside-down, and shaken vigorously, but briefly and with gradually decreasing force, in this inverted position causing the finest, most powdery particles of the yerba to settle toward the preparer's palm and the top of the mate.
Once the yerba has settled, the mate is carefully brought to a near-sideways angle, with the opening tilted just slightly upward of the base. The mate is then shaken very gently with a side-to-side motion. This further settles the yerba inside the gourd so that the finest particles move toward the opening and the yerba is layered along one side. The largest stems and other bits create a partition between the empty space on one side of the gourd and the lopsided pile of yerba on the other.
After arranging the yerba along one side of the gourd, the mate is carefully tilted back onto its base, minimizing further disturbances of the yerba as it is re-oriented to allow consumption. Some avalanche-like settling is normal, but is not desirable. The angled mound of yerba should remain, with its powdery peak still flat and mostly level with the top of the gourd. A layer of stems along its slope will slide downward and accumulate in the space opposite the yerba (though at least a portion should remain in place).
All of this careful settling of the yerba ensures that each sip contains as little particulate matter as possible, creating a smooth-running mate. The finest particles will then be as distant as possible from the filtering end of the straw. With each draw, the smaller particles would inevitably move toward the straw, but the larger particles and stems filter much of this out. A sloped arrangement provides consistent concentration and flavor with each filling of the mate.
Now the mate is ready to receive the straw. Many people choose to pour warm water into the mate before adding the straw, while others insist that the straw is best inserted into dry yerba. Wetting the yerba by gently pouring cool water into the empty space within the gourd until the water nearly reaches the top, and then allowing it to be absorbed into the yerba before adding the straw, allows the preparer to carefully shape and "pack" the yerba's slope with the straw's filtering end, which makes the overall form of the yerba within the gourd more resilient and solid. Dry yerba, on the other hand, allows a cleaner and easier insertion of the straw, though care must be taken so as not to overly disturb the arrangement of the yerba. Such a decision is entirely a personal or cultural preference. The straw is inserted with one's thumb on the upper end of the straw, at an angle roughly perpendicular to the slope of the yerba, so that its filtering end travels into the deepest part of the yerba and comes to rest near or against the opposite wall of the gourd.
Now the yerba may be brewed. If the straw was inserted into dry yerba, the mate must first be filled once with cool water as above, then be allowed to absorb it completely (which generally takes no more than two or three minutes). Treating the yerba with cool water before the addition of hot water is essential, as it protects the herb from being scalded and from the chemical breakdown of some of its desirable nutrients. Hot water may then be added by carefully pouring it, as with the cool water before, into the cavity opposite the yerba, until it reaches almost to the top of the gourd when the yerba is fully saturated. Care should be taken to maintain the dryness of the swollen top of the yerba beside the edge of the gourd's opening.
Once the hot water has been added, the mate is ready for drinking, and it may be refilled many times before becoming washed out (lavado) and losing its flavor. When this occurs, the mound of yerba can be pushed from one side of the gourd to the other, allowing water to be added along its opposite side; this revives the mate for additional re-fillings.
Although it can be served in this traditional way, it is now more of a common drink. The tea bag variety 'mate leão' is brewed as you would brew tea in your own house: sweeten it and refrigerate it for later consumption.
Mate is traditionally drunk in a particular social setting, such as family gatherings or with friends. In Brazil and Argentina, the same gourd (cuia) and straw (bomba/bombilla) are used by everyone drinking. One person (known in Portuguese as the preparador or in Spanish as the cebador) assumes the task of server. Typically, the cebador fills the gourd and drinks the mate completely to ensure that it is free of particulate matter and of good quality. In some places passing the first brew of mate to another drinker is considered bad manners, as it may be too cold or too strong; for this reason the first brew is often called mate del zonzo (mate of the fool). The cebador subsequently refills the gourd and passes it to the next drinker who likewise drinks it all, without thanking the server. When there is no more tea, the straw makes a loud sucking noise, that is not considered rude. The ritual proceeds around the circle in this fashion until the mate becomes lavado ("washed out" or "flat"), typically after the gourd has been filled about ten times or more depending on the yerba used (well-aged yerba mate is typically more potent, and therefore provides a greater number of refills) and the ability of the cebador. When one has had his fill of mate, he or she politely thanks the cebador passing the mate back at the same time. It is considered rude to complain about the temperature of the water or to take too long to finish drinking.
Some drinkers like to add sugar or honey, creating mate dulce (sweet mate), instead of sugarless mate amargo (bitter mate). It is considered bad for the gourd (especially for the natural (squash or wood) ones) to be used for mate dulce so it is normal for households with drinkers of both kinds to have two separate gourds.
Traditionally, natural gourds are used, though wood vessels, bamboo tubes and gourd-shaped mates, made of ceramic or metal (stainless steel or even silver) are also common. In Brazil, the gourd is traditionally made out of the porongo or cabaça fruit shell. Gourds are commonly decorated with silver, sporting decorative or heraldic designs with floral motifs.
Drinking the yerba mate is considered to be more than just good for the body; it's also good for the soul. Drinking it can be a form of meditation or reflection - allowing the goodness to infuse into the body while stimulating and resting the mind. Those who share the mate join in a kind of bond of total acceptance and friendship. Generally the server will start a new infusion and then take the first drink. This is considered an act of kindness by the other people in the circle, because usually the first serving is considered the worst.
Both the wood vessels and the gourds must undergo curing to get a better taste before being used for the first time and to ensure the long life of the gourd. Typically, to cure a gourd, the wet inside is first scraped with the tip of a teaspoon to remove loose gourd particles. Mate herb and hot water is added next, and the mixture poured into the gourd. The mixture is left to sit overnight and the water is topped off periodically through the next 24 hours as the gourd absorbs the water. Finally the gourd is scraped out, emptied, and put in sunlight until completely dry. Drying the gourd near a Parilla (barbecue grill) is common in Argentina and adds a smokey flavor to the gourd.
It is common for a black mold to grow inside a poorly scraped gourd when it is stored wet. Some people will clean this out, others consider it an enhancement to the mate flavor. Storing the gourd empty and in a well ventilated place, like an open shelf, is the better way.
In-vivo and in-vitro studies are showing that yerba mate exhibits significant cancer-fighting activity. In 1995, research at the University of Illinois found yerba mate to inhibit the proliferation of oral cancer cells.
On the other hand, researchers in Mississippi found that both cold and hot water extractions of popular commercial yerba mate products contained high levels (8.03 to 53.3 ng/g dry leaves) of carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) (i.e. Benzo[a]pyrene). However, these potential carcinogenic compounds originate from commercial drying process of the maté leaves, which involves smoke from the burning of wood, much like polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons found in wood smoked meat.
Other studies have highlighted limited evidence showing an association between esophageal cancer and hot mate drinking. Some research has suggested that this effect is almost entirely a consequence of hot mate's temperature; similar links to cancer have been found for tea and other beverages generally consumed at high temperatures. While drinking mate at very hot temperatures is considered as "probably carcinogenic to humans" on the IARC Group 2A carcinogens list, mate itself is not classifiable as to its carcinogenicity to humans.
The Guaraní (Guarani, in Brazilian Portuguese) people started drinking mate in the region that now includes Paraguay, southern Brazil, south-easthern Bolivia, north-east Argentina, and Uruguay. The Guaraní have a legend that says that the Goddesses of the Moon and the Cloud came to the Earth one day to visit it but they instead found a Yaguareté (a jaguar) that was going to attack them. An old man saved them, and, in compensation, the Goddesses gave the old man a new kind of plant, from which he could prepare a "drink of friendship".
There is another drink that can be prepared with specially cut dry leaves, very cold water and, optionally, lemon or another fruit juice, called tereré. It is very common in Paraguay, northeastern Argentina and in the state of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil. After pouring the water, it is considered proper to "wait while the saint has a sip" before the first person takes a drink.
In Uruguay and Brazil the traditional gourd is usually big with a corresponding large hole. In Argentina (especially in the capital, Buenos Aires) the gourd is small and has a small hole, and people sometimes add sugar for flavor.
In Uruguay it is common to see people walking around the streets toting a mate and a thermos with hot water. In some parts of Argentina, gas stations sponsored by yerba mate producers provide free hot water to travelers, specifically for the purpose of drinking during the journey. There are disposable mate sets with a plastic mate and straw, and sets with a thermos flask and stacking containers for the yerba and sugar inside a fitted case. There is a national law In Uruguay that prohibits drinking mate while driving, because it caused many accidents of people getting scalded with hot water while driving.
In Argentina, mate cocido (cooked mate) is made with a teabag or leaves and drunk from a cup or mug, with or without sugar and milk. Since 2001, a tea and coffee company from Mar del Plata exports its production of mate teabags to Poland. In Brazil, mate is considered to be a tradition typical of the “Gaúchos”, name given to those born in Rio Grande do Sul.
Most urban Chileans do not drink mate, but travel narratives such as Maria Graham's Journal of a Residence in Chile, show that there is a long history of mate drinking in central Chile. Many rural Chileans drink mate, in particular in the southern regions, particularly Chiloé and Magallanes, perhaps due to the influence of neighboring areas of Argentina.
In some provinces of the Middle Eastern countries of Syria and Lebanon it is also common to drink mate. The custom of drinking mate came from Arabs who moved to South America during the early twentieth century, adopted the habit, and kept it after returning home. Syria is the biggest importer of yerba mate in the world, importing 15,000 tons a year. It is mostly the Druze community in Syria and Lebanon who maintain the culture and practice of mate.
According to a major retailer of mate in San Luis Obispo, California, by 2004 mate had grown to about 5% of the overall natural tea market in North America. Loose Mate is commercially available in much of North America. Bottled mate is increasingly available in the United States. Canadian bottlers have introduced a cane sugar-sweetened carbonated variety, remarkably similar to soda-pop, less the fructose, chemically extracted caffeine and preservatives. One brand, Sol Mate, produces 10-ounce glass bottles available at Canadian and U.S. retailers, making use of this clever pun for the sake of marketing..
这事儿做 得多了，难免就有人问我，你怎么什么茶都喝？我就好奇反问道，难道这喝茶也有像喝酒一样的规矩，不能混着喝？问完回家一看，架子上那各色各样品种不一的茶 叶，一字排开，却是在琳琅满目之外，又令我顿时哑然失笑。是啊，这一方面必须要自豪一下中国地大物博，人民嗜茶如命，只要气候条件合适的地方，就必然能培 养出当地的一种名茶来。另一方面却要自责一下，这些年背井离乡，一个人在外头飘荡得久了，不仅吃饭的口味不再那么地域化，连喝茶的口味，也变得不执著了。
是 的，作为一个浙江人，在很长很长的一段时间里，我以为茶就是绿茶。甚至在我小时候，也不知道浙江绿茶的代表作是龙井。我们浙南也种茶树，采下来之后的炒 制，不如龙井那么精心，所以形状色泽没有那么漂亮。可是冲出来，依然清香宜人。现在在外面喝多了好茶，偶尔回老家，喝一杯老妈在街边几十块钱一斤买的茶 叶，也会大叫一声“好茶。”至于我从外头拐来的那些号称价格成百上千的茶叶，孝敬了老妈之后，却常常只换来她淡淡的一句，“还行吧。”
只是 今年过年，发现老家的大街小巷也早已经开满了茶馆，而身为茶馆，自然少不了的一套套的茶具，和必备的铁观音普洱。甚至当我去到龙泉，去拜访那些一辈子制造 青瓷的工艺美术大师的时候，也无一例外地在他们工作间的醒目位置，看到一套套精美的茶具——有了这些茶具，就喝不了当地传统的绿茶了。这件事儿想起来，其 实是一件挺令人啼笑皆非的事。所以我看到一位铸剑大师，他喝的是金观音，当地人介绍说，这是龙泉自己产的铁观音。另外一位青瓷工艺大师，他爱喝普洱，据说 从云南买了一吨，租了间仓库储藏起来。还有一位大师，喝的是红茶。或 许，和我这代人相比，父母那一代还是最忠实地执着于他们的喝茶习惯和口味的。对于风靡全国的铁观音，尤其是前两年的普洱和这两年的武夷山岩茶，他们有所耳 闻，却绝不动心。即便是我父母这样不太关心流行事物的人，也终于明白，现在流行的是喝铁观音普洱，也逐渐接受了铁观音悠长的香味。可是当他们看到一人据几 而坐，面前放一张茶盘，茶盘上放满了盖碗、茶壶、公道杯、各色杯子还有茶宠。冲茶之前先装模作样地洗手，等水烧开再冲杯，第一道茶汤喝不得……看到这里的 时候，他们已经忍无可忍：“实在太浪费了，也太麻烦了。”而我，看到他们把铁观音扔到玻璃杯里，用开水一冲就喝的时候，也会痛心疾首。有时候天气太冷，他 们还会选择用保温杯泡茶，喝一口，照样怡然自得。
可是后来，我慢慢地明白了，喝茶本来喝的就是一种心情。在城市里，我们忙碌而浮躁，只有在 面对那一方茶海，一丝不苟地做着茶道的手势的时候，内心有一种被放空的安宁。而对于我们的父母，同样的动作对于他们只是累赘，同样的茶具对他们只是负担。 茶，就只是茶而已，怎么喝，又何必太过执着？
千两茶属 黑茶类，其工艺发源、传承于湖南省益阳市安化县境内，有140年历史。该地集山区、库区于一体，特殊的地理环境，形成了优质的土壤和优良的气候，适宜于茶 树生长。安化素有“中国茶乡”之称，唐朝中期，所产“渠江薄片”茶成为朝廷贡品。宋朝熙宁年间置县时，“惟茶甲于诸州市”。明朝万历年间，安化黑茶定为销 往西北的官茶，占据欧美市场，曾有“无安化字号不买”之说。道光元年（1821），当地茶商为了便于运输，把收来的黑茶踩捆成小圆柱形，每支定为100两 （16两老秤），故称“百两茶”。 同治2年，江南镇边江村的几家茶农在百两茶的基础上，独创出千两花卷茶，重量为老秤1000两。当时，千两茶工艺传内 不传外，三、四十年后才收徒授术。新中国成立后，其工艺得到了一定范围的传承。目前，正在积极抢救这项工艺。
安化千两茶制作属手工操作， 实行土法生产。使用的工具有锯子、剖刀、刮刀、茶杈、湿布、灶炉、筛子、风车、蔑篓、抽屉、木棒、压杠、扎蔑等。其制作分两个阶段进行，首先制作黑毛茶， 经过杀青、揉捻、渥堆、复揉、烘焙等5道工序，然后进行千两茶精深加工，黑毛茶经过筛分、拼配，再采用软化、装篓、踩压、扎箍、锁口、冷却、干燥等工序， 日晒夜露55天，遂成成品。
安化千两茶的主要特征是手工技艺精深，选茶准、烘茶干、装茶满、踩茶紧……等等这些流程，一环紧扣一环，一丝 不苟，精益求精，以质优取胜。其重要价值在于科技含量很高，从而获得相应的社会效益和经济效益。目前，安化千两茶是中国最正宗的黑茶品种，享有“世界茶 王”的盛誉，堪称我国茶文化的“活化石”。安化是千两茶原产地。该县位于湘中偏北，雪峰山脉北部，资水中 游，是一个山区，又是一个库区。东与桃江、宁乡接壤，南与涟源、新化毗邻，西与溆浦、沅陵交界，北与桃源、常德相连。其地理座标，界于东经100°43′ 07″至111°58′51″，北纬27°58′54″至28°38′37″之间。东西长123.764公里，南北宽73.461公里，总面积 4950.25平方公里，是湖南省第三大县。总人口96万。安化还是中华祖源文化——梅山文化的中心发源地和重要发祥地，历史悠久，源远流长，文化独特， 底蕴深厚，为世人所瞩目。千两茶是梅山文化中生产方式、生活习惯的一种很具代表意义的载体，经过了产生、发展、鼎盛、衰落、复兴五个曲折而辉煌的历史时 期。
安化有“先有茶，后有县”之说。唐朝中期，此地所产“渠江薄片”茶成为朝廷贡品。唐朝末年，统领湖南的马殷称王建楚后，大力鼓励农民种 茶，既增加国民经济收入，又用黑茶向西北游牧民族交换战马，安化成了当时湖南黑茶的主产地，黑茶便是后来千两茶精制加工的原料。宋朝熙宁五年（1072） 设置安化县，朝廷对安化的认识就是“惟茶甲于诸市”。当时，官方就已建立茶马交易的茶马司机构。熙宁七年（1074）设有收购茶叶的茶场司和向西北少数民 族买马的买马司。元丰四年（1081），合两司为一，称为茶马司。朝廷司茶机构的设置，极大地促进了安化黑茶业的发展。
千两茶的功能性成 分是茶复合多糖类化合物、儿茶素和氧化产物黄烷醇类氧化基合物，能促进血液循环、控制动脉硬化、帮助消化、防治糖尿病、平衡血脂血栓。这些特殊功能，是其 它茶类不可替代的安化的黑茶，分散茶、紧压茶两大类。散茶类中有引茶、天尖、贡尖、生尖等多种；紧压茶类中有花卷、花砖、茯砖、黑砖茶等。见于文献记载的 《明会典•茶课》说：“弘治三年（1490），令今后进贡番僧该尝食茶…… 不许于湖广等处收买私茶，违者尽数入官”。番僧，指西藏喇嘛。他们常组成上百人的朝拜团至京师礼服朝贡。回藏时，绕道湖广收买私茶。这种私茶就是黑茶，而 湖广黑茶又主产于安化一带。安化黑茶滋味浓厚醇和，而且产量多，价格又便宜，在吸引西藏僧人绕道来收购的同时，还吸引了陕西、山西等地的茶商争来安化收 购，以至引起了朝廷的注意，形成弛禁之争。明万历二十三年（1595），御史李楠以湖南茶叶行销西北妨碍茶法马政为由，请朝廷禁运。另一御史徐侨则提出相 反的意见说：“汉川（汉中和四川）茶少而值高，湖南茶多而值下。湖茶之行销，无妨汉中。汉茶味甘而薄，湖茶味苦，于酥酪为宜”。认为安化黑茶对西北游牧民 族有利，不宜禁止。万历皇帝采纳了这个建议，批准颁布《黑茶章程》，安化黑茶正式定为销往西北的官茶。
清代道光元年（1821）制作的百两茶，就是千 两茶的前身，以此为起点计算，至今已有186年的历史。正宗千两茶产生时间晚于百两茶40多年，足足走过了140年。从时代划分看，经历了中国封建帝制社 会（清道光、咸丰、同治、光绪、宣统）、半封建半殖民地社会、中华民国，进入了社会主义社会，即中华人民共和国。其间，历经坎坷，有兴有衰，兴衰与共，世 间沧桑见证了它的变迁过程。这种源远流长的历史，意寓着博大深厚的茶文化。
千两茶源 于梅山腹地，这里的民俗淳朴而独特。千两茶一旦面世，就紧紧地与当地农民的生产、生活结合在一起。制茶、饮茶蔚然成风，一直延续至今。当时，土著居民“不 求大碗吃肉，唯求小碗喝茶”，尤其爱喝本地特产千两茶，达到淡泊清新、甜中略苦的茶生活境界。喝前，用铁锯将千两茶切片，然后用茶刀将切片再切细，放于茶 具中，最后加热开水沏泡。可见，千两茶茶俗是安化最具特征的民俗。
古往今来，千两茶以其自身的优势和无法替代的作用，赢得了可佳的社会效益和经济效益。按现行市场价，去年产品每支销价为3000元左右，利润率高。特别 是，国际社会称誉安化千两茶为“世界茶王”（出自台湾茶学专家曾至贤《方圆之缘——深探紧压茶世界》一书）。国内外一批专家学者一致认定千两茶：“世界只 有中国有，中国只有湖南有，湖南只有益阳有，益阳只有安化有”。安化千两茶在各级行政区域里的至高无上的地位，得以充分凸显出来。
【ふくおか八女】八女茶を取り扱うＪＡ全農ふく れん茶取引センターは１７日、八女市で２００７ 年度茶業振興研修会を開いた。指定茶商、Ｊ Ａふくおか八女、ＪＡ茶業部会 ...